A satellite view of Canada at night shows lights along the US border and precious little north of that. The 2016 Census reports that 83 percent of the population of 35 million lives in cities of 10,000 or more, 40 percent in the 15 largest cities, and 8 percent in Toronto. Immigrants have accounted for about two-thirds of the 5 percent population increase over the past five years.
These few facts show that
- The landmass of Canada is largely unpopulated, not unlike the eastern seven time zones of Russia. Canada’s maritime boundaries are virtually unprotected at least by Canadian forces with its under equipped navy and airforce. The US is the de facto defense provider, although the NORAD agreement has been in place since the 1950s.
- Recent immigrants like previous ones prefer to live in cities, and many head for Vancouver, Toronto and Montreal. They don’t want to live in rural areas where there is masses of space but limited services. (Note, all Canadians are immigrants, arriving at different times, including native peoples who are traced to Africa and migrating over the Russian land bridge to North America around 60,000 years ago. In this sense, there are no indigenous people. All arrived at different times in the past. Those that arrived after 1500 brought diseases which helped to decimate those who arrived earlier.)
- The immigrant wave, from say 1500, came, settled and stayed. Until recently, they had no cell phones or wifi that could keep them in daily contact with family and friends at home. Travel and communications were expensive. Today’s immigrants are less connected to Canada in this regard, especially with the reduced cost of travel and communications.
- Life was hard for early immigrants. Access the Doukhobor website to see a photograph of women harnessed to a plough, as evidence of the hardships faced by those who arrived in Canada around 1900.
- Conditions for today’s immigrants are different. Some will want to stay. Others may decide to return home when and if conditions improve and are in transit. Canadians have largely welcomed recent arrivals, although there is resistance to those crossing the US border and applying for refugee status, as is permitted by Canadian law. Unlike the refugee crossing from North Africa and the Middle East to Western Europe, North America is bordered by the expanse of the Atlantic and Pacific oceans which gives rise to different physical barriers. Policy enforcement also differs here, although it has resulted in an estimated 11 million illegal immigrants in the US and perhaps 500,000 in Canada….no one knows.
The latest census and geopolitical conditions are factors describing the circumstances facing Canadians today.