Archive for the ‘Canada’ Category

The Swamp in Canada

October 28, 2017

So, Trump’s support has fallen to 38% from the mid-forties. That seems to me like a considerable chunk of voters including I suspect some, who in the run up to the election liked Sanders. Both appealed to voters who felt they had been dealt a raw deal and had few future prospects. That group still exists. Do similar circumstances exist in Canada?

To many voters Trump’s appeal was his promise to drain the swamp of lobbyists and hangers-on who benefit from the operations of government. In the process he has managed to fill the swamp with his own noxious creatures rather than to expel those already there. A Bannon is there to destroy the legislative process, at least the way it has operated to-date. Past dictators have used similar means to gain power for themselves and for those supporting their views.

Some blame the checks and balances built into the US constitutional structure. They forget that it was set up to offset what was seen at the time to be the failure of British rule by an hereditary monarch and elected parliament. It is more likely that all representative political systems develop flaws and weaknesses over time, as politicians learn how to work the system to the benefit of certain groups and the expense of others. This seems to be the case in the US where income has become redistributed to the top 5% of the population.

Figures for income inequality by country show 46.1 for the US and 33.7 for Canada, where a higher figure shows greater inequality. (Figures of inequality by country can be found in Wikipedia under “List of countries by income inequality”). This does not mean that Canada is swamp-free, but more likely that it may be less infested than south of the border, and may have different inhabitants.

Canadian interest groups are adept at lobbying not just for basic needs such as education and health care, but for low-cost (subsidized) transit fares, free on Wednesdays in Ottawa for seniors like myself, doubtlessly a deserving group, and attractive to politicians appealing to an increasing older population. Students lobby provincial governments to abolish fees for higher education without taking into account how it might be financed and what it might do to the quality of the service provided. Canada has its own swamp but with different residing creatures than south of the border. A weakness of any democracy is that voters learn how to play the system.

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The Politics of Resentment

October 18, 2017
After watching and reading about Trump during his first ten months in office, I have gone from thinking him dangerous and mentally unstable to a feeling that he has a personality disorder. This still makes him dangerous because of how people may react to his antics and statements.
While no psychologist, I find his behaviour as petulant and childlike. But while a child can be disciplined and quarantined, this is not the case with an elected politician in a democracy. Hitler and Mussolini were elected via a democratic process and then overturned it. I am not sure about Franco and Stalin, but both had a core of strong supporters.

A mistake now is to focus too much on the man rather than on his supporters. After ten months, between 35 and 40 percent of the US electorate continue to support Trump. Many are not traditional Republican voters but people who feel that they have been getting a raw deal from their elected politicians. Like Hitler’s supporters, they are willing to follow a leader who offers them prospects, because it can’t be any worse than their present situation. The party label of the leader matters much less to them than the promises made. Eventually they may feel betrayed by their leader; the alternative could be a more extreme leader or a manning of the barricades as in Les Miserables.

What motivates the 35 percent is that over the past few decades their real incomes have declined, and the gap between the top 10 percent of families and the rest has widened with few prospects of better times. They are willing to support someone who offers better times ahead even if his manner is a bit rough up close. Of course if he does not deliver they may switch their support, perhaps to someone with more radical views and exhibiting more outrageous behaviour……caveat voter.

Trump connects with the 35 percent by understanding and appealing to their feelings of resentment. He feeds off it and so do they. I found the works of Michael Sandel, Professor of Politics at Harvard, and J.D.Vance author of Hillbilly Elegy provide good explanations of the American scene. The electoral success of right wing parties in Europe manifest similar political forces.When the Economist considers that Jeremy Corbyn could be a future UK prime minister you know something is afoot. Canada has a version of this with the Ford brothers in Toronto.

University Funding

October 7, 2017

A generous donation to Carleton University by the Nicol family is to fund a new commerce building to house the Sprott School of Business. One has to wonder whether this is the best use of the $10 million input to a $48 million building. Throughout universities many faculty offices are occupied only a few hours a week, as faculty work at home connected worldwide with their own computers. This has been the case since the early 1970s. University office sharing is an option as takes place in many businesses.

Another practice is online teaching which, while it will never altogether replace in class attendance, is increasingly being used in many disciplines. Check the Khan Academy website for one online example. Over time schools and universities will learn how to grant diplomas and credits which employers will recognize. This trend also works against creating more university space.

There will be no lack of suggestions as to how the Nicol donation could be used. An obvious one, at least to me, is financial support for students. Rising fees and reduced government funding increases the burden on students and their families. Nicol Fellowships could be created thereby spreading and perpetuating the Nicol name over numerous recipients rather than one building. Fulbright Fellowships, established in 1946, were named after Senator Fulbright. Although he provided none of the funding, his name lives on with fifty-four Fulbright alumni going on to win Nobel prizes.

Voting Systems – be careful what you wish for

March 25, 2017

There are numerous voting systems, none without bias. It is just that the bias favours different groups and so explains who supporters and opponents are. The recent Dutch national election reveals how proportional representation (PR) can work, and the implications if Canada chose a similar system. At present, the federal government has decided not to make changes. While criticized for reneging on an election promise, the government should be congratulated for retaining the status quo.

The Dutch example

The Netherlands adopted PR for its recent election. It works as follows. The country is treated as one constituency with 100 members elected according to the number of votes received by a party. There were 28 parties on the ballot and members elected for thirteen of them. It will take a coalition of four or five parties to achieve a majority for legislation to be passed.

A Dutch voter has no member representing her or his district if the voter has an issue to discuss. Maybe this works with a population of 17 million in a relatively small homogeneous land area, but I doubt whether it would in the widely distributed and varied Canadian situation. A voter in Newfoundland, Quebec and BC for instance would each want to be able to contact someone familiar with conditions in their location. This is one reason why a constituency system is more suited to Canada. There are others. It is possible to have a mixed system with some members elected in constituencies, and some chosen from a list of candidates proposed by parties. How the latter are chosen to be party representatives raises all sorts of issues.

In Canada it is sometimes thought that only the existing parties would run candidates if PR was adopted. This is unlikely as the case of the 28 parties on the Dutch ballot reveals. Under PR, The NDP and the Greens would have collected more seats, and the Liberals fewer seats in the 2015 Federal election, but only assuming that no other parties had formed and were on the ballot, an unlikely event.

With the existing first past the post Canadian system, you can end up with members elected with less than 50 percent of the constituency vote, but it seems to have worked out pretty well over the years not only here but in the UK and a number of other countries, …….and in contrast to the system south of the border where creation of an electoral college to elect a president and gerrymandering of Congressional districts have subverted representation.

When Provinces have held referenda on changing the Canadian voting system, there has been no strong support for change. Maybe the voters are smarter than those supporting change. To repeat, there is no unbiased voting system. Each favours some groups at the expense of others both in electing members and in the passage of legislation. A main check of the existing system is elections required at certain dates or with the defeat of the government.

A Real Global Problem

March 7, 2017

The Environment

There is a problem with the environment which does not depend on conflicting opinions based on computer driven models as is the case with global warming. It is air pollution, clean air or whatever you call the ghostly daytime scenes in cities like Beijing, Delhi and now London.

The World Health Organization estimates that seven million people died from air pollution in 2012 which was about one in eight of all deaths in the world that year. It confirms that air pollution is the world’s largest environmental health risk. Most of the deaths are due to heart disease, stroke, lung cancer and acute respiratory infections.

London’s air pollution today is similar to that of the 1950s which was due to coal burning power stations and coal used to heat homes. Today a main reason is the use of wood burning stoves for heating. The pollution is visible and a health hazard.

Environment Canada publishes an Air Quality Health Index and on most days there are no problems similar to those found in the cities of some other countries. As a global issue it is large and visible where it occurs.

 

What does populism mean?

February 22, 2017

Populism is a loosely defined term which seems to refer to actions taken by any group within a society which is fed up with conditions affecting them, low wages, unemployment, refugees, immigration and so on.

It is used to describe the reasons for Brexit in the UK, terrorism/racism/immigrants and unequal income distribution in the US, and refugees and related conditions in countries such as France, the Netherlands, Italy and even Germany.

In Canada, according to Wikipedia, populist movements describe the Social Credit and the Reform Party in Alberta, Creditistes, the Union Nationale and PQ in Quebec, the federal Liberal party under Prime Ministers Mackenzie and Laurier, labour parties leading up to the CCF and NDP, and support for various premiers of Ontario.

This seems to be rather all inclusive referring to any time when a group in society becomes activated and organizes politically. It merely describes contemporary political conditions. A recent case of populism today would be Ford Nation in Toronto, where one segment of the city feel that they are taxed for the benefit of another. The Ford brothers used this to their political advantage.

It does not seem to be a useful term unless the reasons for it are given.

Cultural Appropriation

February 15, 2017

The Shattered Mirror

February 8, 2017

 

 

The Shattered Mirror – News, Democracy and Trust in the Digital Age proposes increased bureaucratic input and public funding for a sector rocked by new technology.

What Uber has done to the taxi business and Airbnb to accommodation, has invaded all forms of media including news reporting and distribution. Daily newspapers are haemorrhaging advertising revenues and many have been forced out of business, or to adopt different means of distribution. Many other sectors are affected by technology such as education with the offerings of online courses. Existing suppliers fight back to maintain at least some semblance of the status quo, often lobbying governments for increased support. Ultimately new technology usually wins and a new breed of entrepreneurs rise to fill any gaps to provide the desired goods and services.

The process is part of Schumpeter’s stages of creative destruction which benefits consumers, and those producers who adapt. Those who lose appeal to the government for support. Such is the case for The Canadian Public Policy Forum’s latest report The Shattered Mirror, News, Democracy and Trust in the Digital Age which examines how technology has affected traditional news media. It argues that the public is poorly served by the new digital news providers and that democracy is at risk with, for example, the reporting of fake news.

Since the 1950’s numerous reports have examined the Canadian media including news. They include:

1951 Royal Commission on National Development in the Arts Letters and Sciences (Massey Report).

1961 Royal Commission on Publication (O’Leary Report)

1970 Special Senate Committee Report on the Mass Media, (Davey Report)

1981 Royal Commission on Newspapers (Kent Report)

1982 Report of the Federal Cultural Policy Review Committee (Applebaum Hebert Report)

2006 Senate Report on the Canadian News Media (40 recommendations and 10 suggestions).

 

All recommended measures of protection and support to which The Shattered Mirror adds its contribution. Written by a person who has had a distinguished career in journalism, this almost assures that the recommendations will include further government support for the industry. It succeeds in this regard. It would be the same if dairy farmers were asked for advice on supply management or academics on university funding.

The report contains thirteen proposals. Many require additional administration of funds and rules which in total would require both added bureaucratic overhead and time spent by firms to qualify for the funding.

Two proposals provide the tenor of the report and the tortuous process that would be required to comply with the provisions.

  1. In the proposal to extend provisions of Section 19 of the income tax act to other media. Producers of eligible news will be required to show that: (Recommendation No.1).

At least 75 percent of editorial payroll and 75 percent of their eight most highly paid employees are Canadian individuals or personal-service companies.

At least five percent of the company’s revenue generated in Canada is spent on editorial operations, with a significant amount for civic-function journalism.

 

  1. Creation of a fund managed independently from the government (Recommendation No.5).

Creation of the Future of Journalism and Democracy Fund would provide financing for digital innovation, especially in its early stages, and be directed at those operators who produce civic-function journalism at the national, regional and local levels. To qualify, enterprises would have to be Section 19-compliant and deliver original news on digital platforms that are refreshed at least once a week. The fund would cover a maximum of 75 percent of the cost of a project. The ability of applicants to attract support from other partners would factor into the grant decision.

 

Proposals regarding the CBC fail to note shrinking audiences especially for English language television. CRTC Annual Monitoring Reports (available online) show the CBC’s share of the English language television market fell from 13.2 percent in 1994 to 7.5 percent in 2000 and to 5.1 percent in 2012. While government financing has remained around $1bn, this segment of its mandate has been shrinking, so that on a per viewer basis the funding has been increasing.

If the CBC is to survive, consideration should be given to it being funded only by government and not selling commercials. The latter puts it in competition with private broadcasters, allowing it to use public funds to buy programs like major sporting events. In the UK and Australia, the public broadcaster is funded almost entirely by government, with far less angst being created between public and private broadcasters. A government owned broadcaster, if one is needed, can devote its attention to its public service mandate and have a far lesser concern for audience size.

 

The Shattered Mirror focuses on the importance of civic-function journalism defined as the coverage of elected officials and public institutions, from legislatures, judicial and quasi-judicial bodies and city halls to school boards and supporting public services. That is important, but in a globalized world coverage of what happens outside Canada is increasingly important. Much of this can be accessed online from websites and blogs run by people whose judgement I personally respect in different news related fields, and superior to many traditional news sources. In broadcast media, my preference is for The Agenda on TVO and the PBS Newshour. In both instances the anchors are informed but do not insert their own opinions, unlike what prevails with the CBC and CTV.

There is much more to comment on in the report. As it stands it argues the case for supporting more of the same with increased bureaucratic input. It deserves further discussion.

Cultural Diversity

January 28, 2017

Does protection promote cultural diversity?

In 1997, I was invited to be a member of the Cultural SAGIT (Sectoral Advisory Group for International Trade for the Canadian government). Mostly the members were drawn from the different cultural sectors such as print, audio-visual and live performing arts. Lawyers advising these groups were members as well those representing industry and employee organizations. Each represented a lobby group and did so forcefully. In addition bureaucrats, mainly from Heritage Canada, were in attendance to record the views of the members.

As the lone academic unassociated with any cultural sector, unless you count education, but with an interest in public policy, I found the expressed viewpoints interesting, but almost unanimously concerned with either continuing or increasing financial support and protection for the cultural industries. Subsidies and protection should be maintained or increased was the general tone of the discussion. In international fora France and Canada were strong supporters for continued protection while the US opposed it. I questioned the protectionist viewpoint.

All this took place while two events were occurring. One was a series of trade negotiations where cultural protectionist policies were being challenged by some countries, especially the US, as in the case of subsidies and content policies for the audiovisual sector, especially for film and TV.

The second was the influence of technology on both the production and distribution of cultural content. Audiences for over-the-air programs distributed by established public and private radio and TV networks were declining as new online delivery services were being created. The latter expanded viewer choice, and with the internet allowed audiences to select content from all over the world. At the same time print newspaper distribution and associated advertising were declining and have continued to do so.

In the case of public broadcasting, for example, while financial support was maintained audiences were shrinking. Thus on a per viewer basis the subsidy was actually increasing. For example the federal government has maintained its subsidy to the public broadcaster at around a billion dollars per annum while with declining audiences, especially for English language television, it means that on a per viewer basis the subsidy has increased. It costs more to service Canadian TV audiences. Meanwhile those in favour of public broadcasting still argue for either maintaining or increasing the subsidy. CRTC Annual Monitoring Reports (available online) show the CBC’s share of the English language television market fell from 13.2 percent in 1994 to 7.5 percent in 2000 and to 5.1 percent in 2012.

Technological change has also affected the print media with a sharp decline in the distribution of hard copies of books, newspapers and magazines and the ability of consumers to obtain content from an expanding array of online content providers from around the world.

Within the past two decades, the developments have been so major that the ability to protect the cultural industries in the traditional ways – a combination of public ownership, restrictions on foreign ownership, Canadian content requirements and subsidies to Canadian producers – has lessened. Protectionist policies no longer work. Technology has undermined them.

The Cultural SAGIT members were presented with these changes, which became more pronounced with time, but chose to ignore their impact arguing that it would, or might, be possible to perpetuate the protectionist policies by negotiating in UNESCO an International Agreement on Cultural Diversity. This came about in 2005 with the UNESCO Convention on the Protection and Promotion of the Diversity of Cultural Expressions.

How the Convention has worked out will be the subject of a future posting. Much is posted on the UNESCO website, but often outsiders are unable to open certain pages related to this Convention.

The Promise of Canada by Charlotte Gray – A review

November 7, 2016

I would strongly recommend this book to all diplomats posted to Canada, as well as to all Canadians posted abroad who need to understand the history of their country. In fact, the same is true for all Canadians who, if like me, may think they know how Canada evolved but would be pushed to identify all the relevant factors. Charlotte Gray has done this in a brilliantly researched and written way.

I came to Canada from the UK over sixty years ago and have lived here ever since, except for a period of study at the London School of Economics. Two years after arrival I became a landed immigrant and after a further thirteen a citizen. My children and grandchildren are all Canadian by birth.

Charlotte Gray arrived in 1979 and has become a superb chronicler of the evolution of Canada over the past two centuries. In my time here, I have not fully appreciated what was going on around me, but now I do, as she has skillfully authored an account of the country’s evolution from the time of politician Sir George-Etienne Cartier (1814-1873) to rapper Shad (1982- who is new to me).

It requires an enormous amount of skilled research (using both secondary sources and interviews) to develop these materials, and still more to integrate them into an intelligent portrait of a country which has grown in both size and numerous other ways.

Canadian literary blue-bloods have rightly given the book outstanding reviews. Rather than add to these, I will try to outline several things I have learned or have come to appreciate about Canada.

  1. One starting point to understanding Canada is geography, both its relation to other parts of the world, and what goes on inside. As for the latter, there are very few people in Canada in terms of population density or persons per square km. In 1961, the figure was 2/sq km and in 2015 4/sq km. Comparable figures for other countries are Russia 7 and 9; US 20 and 35; China 70 and 146; Singapore 2541 and 7829. Canada is largely empty.
  2. By far the majority of Canadians live in urban areas,18 million (about 60 %) in the ten largest metropolitan areas as of 2011. A light map of the country shows most of these people living close to the US border, while large swathes of the country are drenched in darkness.
  3. The rural population expects preferred treatment and often has difficulty in making its voice heard. The continuation of such measures as supply management for dairy products shows that in some instances this occurs.
  4. The diverse regions in which Canadians live include the Maritimes, Central Canada, the Prairies, British Columbia and the North. The economic, cultural and social character of each has meant that it is often difficult to get agreement on things that affect the whole country, and explains why parts, especially French Canada, from time to time toy with separation. Holding the parts together is a continuing challenge for federal politicians.
  5. All Canadians are immigrants who have arrived at different times. The original settlers came out of Africa about 60,000 to 100,000 years ago, travelling up to and through today’s Russia, across the land bridge to Alaska and down into North and South America. Later settlers, the ones most often covered in history books, came from Europe, especially the French, English, Dutch and Spanish. The arrival of each changes the lives of those already there, and does so for migrants arriving today.

It is how Canada has and continues to respond to these geographic and demographic factors which has influenced how the country has and may evolve in the future. Charlotte Gray’s detailed portraits of nine Canadians from different walks of life, politician, policeman, artist, academic, lawyer, and vignettes of five others (journalist, business, mayor, rapper and pop artist) provides the reader with an outstanding introduction to understanding Canada today and how we got here from there.