Archive for the ‘Religion’ Category

Sapiens – A brief history of humankind – A review

November 15, 2017

If the author or authors – some think it was Moses – of the Book of Genesis had had the evidence provided by manned and unmanned missions to space, would they have given a different account of the origins of the universe and of humans. Space exploration over the past fifty years has expanded our understanding of the universe but with many questions still answered. Anthropological research has increased our knowledge of the evolution of humans.

 

Along comes Israeli historian Yuval Harari, author of first Sapiens: A Brief History of Humankind, and in 2015 Homo Deus: A Brief History of Tomorrow. The first traces how humans got from then to now, while the second speculates about their future. Both challenge our views of the world and our place in it past, present and future. Here I comment on Sapiens.

 

The time span of world history stretches from 13.5 billion years ago, while the story of Sapiens deals with the last 70,000 years, a small fraction of this period, when our forefathers emerged out of Africa and spread throughout the world including across the Bering sea from Asia to the American continent. All inhabitants of today’s Canada and the US, for example, are migrants from some time past. Even the first settlers were immigrants travelling south and west through today’s North, Central and South America.

 

Today’s humans have evolved from the genus Homo of which there were many types whose known origins are traced by anthropologists to about 2.5 million years ago in Africa. The evidence used is the carbon dating of stone tools. Fast forward to 200,000 years ago when Homo sapiens is traced to east Africa – sapiens being one species of the genus Homo. We are not alone but one part of this genus.

 

While there were and are several species of the genus Homo, the interesting puzzle is to find out why Homo sapiens survived and why many but not all of the others became extinct. Sapiens belongs to the same genus as gorillas for instance. Harari describes how three revolutions have lead humans to the so-called civilized state we enjoy today – the Cognitive Revolution (70,000 years ago) and the emergence of language, the Agricultural Revolution (12,000 years ago) with the domestication of plants and animals and the emergence of farming to replace the hunter-gatherer; and the Scientific Revolution (500 years ago) of which the Industrial Revolution (100 years ago) is one part.

 

In the broad scheme of things, the present day is a small part of human evolution and will likely pass to another stage which Harari discusses in his second book Homo Deus (to be reviewed later). There are many excellent reviews of Sapiens, all favourable except for the odd academic who wants to quibble with some issue to reveal his or her brilliance…..usually his.

 

What struck me was the short space of time that humans have existed, and the recognition that this could and is likely to come to an end; that we are closely related to gorillas and chimpanzees, and that in certain environments they would survive and we would not. This is aside from extinction of all forms of life resulting from a nuclear holocaust due to the madness of politicians. Today’s politicians make the “Madness of King George” look like a fairy tale. One of my ancestors was an ear doctor who may have hastened his demise. This book makes it difficult for many religions to retain their account of the origin and nature of the universe which is continuing to expand.

Advertisements

Is Trump a modern day Luther?

November 13, 2017

Fifty years hence will people describe the political rise of Donald Trump as having similarities to the career of Martin Luther (1483-1546)? Of course the details are different in numerous ways, but the general circumstances giving rise to both men have similarities. Both had a following united by what they felt to be injustices or wrongs being committed by those in power. Luther was considered to be a royal pain in the arse by the Catholic hierarchy in Rome as well as church leaders in other parts of Europe. Trump claims to champion those in the US  who have been left behind in the economic growth of the past three or four decades, estimated at 35-40% of the population. The circumstances of these people are described by Michael Sandel, Professor of Politics at Harvard and J.D.Vance author of Hillbilly Elegy.

The personalities of the two men are quite different, but the conditions giving rise to their success have similarities. Luther was appalled by the corruption perpetrated by the leaders of the Roman Catholic Church such as the sale of indulgences, and set about creating the Protestant faction of Christian believer. Given the times, it is surprising that he was not imprisoned and/or executed.

Trump plays to the support of those left behind in the prosperity enjoyed by people with higher incomes, and the growing spread between the very rich and the rest. While his tactics do not appeal to many because while he also legislates in favour of the rich, and behaves in unconventional ways, at least he manages to keep the support of about one-third of the population.

How long Trump survives politically is moot at this time, but looking back it may be seen, that like other political rabble rousers, he was adept at identifying sensitive points of the establishment’s behaviour. His use of Tweets may come to be seen as similar to Luther’s authorship of the “ninety-five theses”  containing a critique of the church and the need for reformation.

God’s Bankers by Gerald Posner

March 28, 2016

An institution with two thousand years of history like the Catholic Church is bound to have an interesting story to tell. It does

 

Think of medieval popes waging the Crusades — raising armies, sacking ­cities and conquering territory — in the name of Jesus Christ. Or prelates torturing apostates and heretics during the Inquisition. Or Pope Pius V expelling Jews from the Papal States in 1569. Or Pope Pius XI signing the Reichskonkordat with ­Hitler, which, in return for winning a measure of freedom for German Catholics ­under the Nazis, assured silence from the Holy See over the forced sterilization of 400,000 people and then only the faintest of ­objections to the Holocaust. Or more ­recently, bishops and other church officials concealing widespread and repeated child sexual abuse by priests.

 

The foregoing is an extract from a NYT review of Posner’s recent book. How the Vatican makes and spends money and operates its banking arrangements is central to the story. And the conclusion is that it has operated more like a mafia-type than what might be expected from a religious organization. While priests in the field undoubtedly continue to do good work, corruption has prevailed at head office. Its charitable works have come at a price. And while various popes have tried to clean things up, they have been sandbagged by the Cardinals and Vatican bureaucrats who been feathering their own nests.

 

Pope Francis appears to be making a valiant attempt to remedy things, but the odds are against him. Other Popes have tried and failed. Some made things worse. Partly this is due to the age at which they and the gang of Cardinals reach their positions. While undoubtedly learned in the doctrines of the church, they are often too old to have the energy to confront the entrenched bureaucracy.

 

Elected politicians are frequently corrupt, even in democratic societies, but regular elections provide some opportunity to clean house. In the Vatican’s case, the Pope is elected by the Cardinals, while the Cardinals are appointed for life, and once installed can carry on with little pressure for change. The bureaucrats beneath them often forestall change knowing that Popes are eventually replaced. With the majority of Catholics now in Central and South America, Africa and parts of Asia, there may be a slight possibility to clean house. But optimism is not high.

http://www.usatoday.com/story/news/world/2013/03/12/catholic-church-africa/1963171/

 

NYT Book Review at http://www.nytimes.com/2015/03/22/books/review/gods-bankers-by-gerald-posner.html?_r=0